- Really good writing
- Staring Idris Elba
- Amazing cast
- gr8 cinematography
- Cool ladies
- questions of morality and the concepts of love, evil, good
- really interesting characters and interactions.
- a detective series that isn’t about two white guys
- idris elba
- Excellent pacing
- really neat sets and designs, very cool textures.
- bad guys are all kinda pathetic while also still being scary and dangerous, which is important to me bc a lot of crime shows tend to romaticize or glorify the bad guys
- tiny fandom that would probably be improved by me talking some of the elementary folk into giving it a try
- Idris Elba
Halloween just wouldn’t be the same without Tim Burton
(From top to bottom: Beetlejuice, The Nightmare Before Christmas, The Corpse Bride, Alice in Wonderland, Sleepy Hollow, Edward Scissorhands, Sweeny Todd, Dark Shadows, Frankenweenie)
Tim Burton ❤️
Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Battersea, South London. It is just one of three Industrial sites in England on the watch list. (Photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons)
Different types of nerves and skin receptors work in concert to produce sensations of touch, University of Chicago neuroscientists argue in a review article published Sept. 22, 2014, in the journal Trends in Neurosciences. Their assertion challenges a long-held principle in the field — that separate groups of nerves and receptors are responsible for distinct components of touch, like texture or shape. They hope to change the way somatosensory neuroscience is taught and how the science of touch is studied.
Sliman Bensmaia, PhD, assistant professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago, and Hannes Saal, PhD, a postdoctoral scholar in Bensmaia’s lab, reviewed more than 100 research studies on the physiological basis of touch published over the past 57 years. They argue that evidence once thought to show that different groups of receptors and nerves, or afferents, were responsible for conveying information about separate components of touch to the brain actually demonstrates that these afferents work together to produce the complex sensation.
"Any time you touch an object, all of these afferents are active together," Bensmaia said. "They each convey information about all aspects of an object, whether it’s the shape, the texture, or its motion across the skin."
Three different types of afferents convey information about touch to the brain: slowly adapting type 1 (SA1), rapidly adapting (RA) and Pacinian (PC). According to the traditional view, SA1 afferents are responsible for communicating information about shape and texture of objects, RA afferents help sense motion and grip control, and PC afferents detect vibrations.
In the past, Bensmaia said, this classification system has been supported by experiments using mechanical devices to elicit one or more of these specific components of touch. For example, responses to texture are often generated using a rotating, cylindrical drum covered with a Braille-like pattern of raised dots. Study subjects would place a finger on the drum as it rotated, and scientists recorded the neural responses.
Such experiments showed that SA1 afferents responded very strongly to this artificial stimulus, and RA and PC afferents did not, thus the association of SA1s with texture. However, in experiments in which subjects moved a finger across sandpaper — the quintessential example of the type of textures we encounter in the real world — SA1 afferents did not respond at all.
Bensmaia also pointed out discrepancies in the predominant thinking about how we discern shape. Perception of shapes has generally been tested using devices with raised or embossed letters to test a subject’s ability to interpret text by touch. These experiments also showed that such inputs produced a strong SA1 response, so they were implicated in perception of shape as well.
In the 1980s, however, researchers developed a device meant to help blind people read by generating vibrating patterns in the shape of letters on an array of pins. While the device was not a commercial success, people were able to use it to detect letter shapes and read, although experiments showed that it activated RA and PC afferents, not the supposedly shape-detecting SA1s.
Bensmaia said such experiments show how devices created to generate artificial stimuli focusing on individual components of the sense of touch can result in misleading findings. Some types of afferents are better than others at detecting texture or shape, for example, but all of them respond in their own way and contribute to the overall sensation.
"To get a good picture of how stimulus information is being conveyed in these afferent populations, you have to look at a diverse set of stimuli that spans the range of what you might feel in everyday tactile experience," he said.
Instead of thinking of individual groups of afferents working separately to process different components of the sense of touch, Bensmaia said we should think of all of them working in concert, much like individual musicians in a band to create its overall sound. Each musician contributes in his or her own way. Emphasizing one instrument or removing another can change the character of a song, but no single sound is responsible for the entire performance.
Adopting this new way of thinking will have far-reaching implications for both the study of the sense of touch and the design of future research, Bensmaia said.
"I think it’s going to change neuroscience textbooks, and by extension it’s going to change the way somatosensory neuroscience is taught. It’s really the starting point for everything."
I also have an envelope.
Just a few things I wanted to share.
please watch this cat talking to her babies
if any of my posts deserved to get a lot of notes its this one
This was all I needed today. Thank you, Tumblr.
being an introvert is really hard because there is no polite way to tell someone that you’re in a bad mood because you’re exhausted from socializing.
Photograph by ioanadiana191
Thanking you :D
Rapunzel: 5 things from your bucket list -I don’t have a bucket list as such, but off the top of my head… I want to graduate, cosplay as Frankenfurter at a performance of RHPS, run a half-marathon, go sledding with huskies in Lapland again, and visit the Tower of London.
Pocahontas: Something new you taught someone. - A couple of weeks ago I told my sister why pelican crossings have that name.
Eric: Have you ever helped a stranger? What happened? -Erm… I don’t think I ever have, since it would involve interacting with them >_> *shame*
Boo: A childhood hero. -I’m not sure I ever really had one. Maybe my teachers? I tended to latch onto teachers and idolise them a bit, and probably the one I idolised most in primary school was the teacher I had for years 3 and 5, Mr Wainwright.
Seven Dwarfs: 7 things you like in the people around you -I’m assuming this means general qualities I think are important? Rather than qualities of specific people around me? I’ll answer as though it’s the former, anyway: honesty, a sense of humour/ability to ‘get’ my sense of humour, shared interests to some extent, kindness, open mindedness, being reasonably assertive (since I’m not), and tolerance.
Buzz: Your favourite fantasy world (aka Harry Potter, Star Wars), if any. -I’d have to say the world according to the RP site I used to contribute to, which was primarily LXG-oriented, but became a general Victorian/Edwardian London with various literary worlds and characters thrown into the mix.
This was porn to me.
this is porn
and then this happened
is that John Barrowman and James Marsters making out
… that is John Barrowman and James Marsers making out